There are many factors that affect productivity. First of all it depends on which industry we are talking about. If it's a generic question, it might be difficult to answer that. But I will like to give it a try. First of all it depends on the internal factors like technology and finance. Finance is obviously the main factor, because if it is well planned and kept on track many problems can be avoided. After all, cash flow is the lifeblood of any business. Hire a bookkeeper, best solution I could think of. Then the external factors : Location and your Government. Location because every industry differs as per location, things like availability as accessibility to resources, climatic conditions, etc. And yes, Government because you need to know the policies to follow them, you don't want to break any rules. All these factors are inter-linked one way or the other. Just do right things the right way and you will be fine. All the best mate!